“When somebody presents to a doctor with fever, cough, malaise, except it’s one of many few issues peculiar to covid-19, like a lack of scent, it’s arduous to inform them aside when each are circulating in the neighborhood,” mentioned Benjamin D. Singer, an assistant professor of medication at Northwestern College’s Feinberg College of Drugs and a pulmonary crucial care specialist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital.
However the months forward don’t must be so troublesome. If individuals observe social distancing measures and put on masks, these measures will restrict transmission of covid-19 — and management influenza. Each viruses unfold primarily by means of person-to-person respiratory droplets when a sick particular person coughs, sneezes or talks.
“However, I’m an optimist. If the American public heeds the recommendation that we mentioned about face masking and the social distancing and the hand-washing and being good about crowds, this might be probably the greatest flu seasons we now have had,” Redfield mentioned. “And significantly in the event that they do another factor, and that’s to embrace the flu vaccine with confidence.”
The CDC advises that nearly everybody 6 months or older get a flu vaccine yearly. It’s thought-about particularly necessary for people susceptible to extreme sickness: kids youthful than 2, adults older than 65, individuals with suppressed immune techniques, pregnant ladies and anybody with power lung, coronary heart, kidney or liver illness.
The flu vaccine is produced by personal producers, with a document variety of doses being churned out this 12 months — almost 200 million, up from about 175 million final 12 months. Influenza doses started delivery in July, and manufacturing and distribution will happen over an extended interval this season — by means of January or later — to reply to anticipated elevated demand.
The CDC has additionally taken the uncommon step of shopping for greater than 9 million doses to be distributed to states for grownup vaccination. The company usually buys about 500,000 grownup doses. Well being officers need uninsured adults who misplaced their jobs throughout the pandemic to have elevated entry to flu photographs.
This 12 months, Redfield mentioned, his aim is to spice up grownup vaccination charges to 65 p.c throughout the board.
“This can be a crucial 12 months for us to attempt to take flu as a lot off the desk as we will,” he mentioned within the JAMA interview. In kids, vaccination charges are usually about 60 p.c. Grownup charges hover “within the excessive 30s,” Redfield mentioned.
In at the least one state, Massachusetts, flu vaccination is now required for nearly all college students and youngsters, beginning in little one care by means of faculty. Vermont’s well being commissioner mentioned that state is contemplating a mandate for school-age kids and expects a call inside weeks.
Federal well being officers just lately expanded entry to flu photographs, authorizing pharmacists to vaccinate kids ages three to 18.
Some consultants see hopeful indicators in exceptionally low ranges of flu within the Southern Hemisphere, which might imply little an infection spreading north. Specialists cited public well being measures put in place in Australia and different international locations early within the coronavirus pandemic as serving to cut back flu circulation. With much less international journey, there could also be much less international circulation of influenza viruses.
However in the US, persons are exhausted by the pandemic, and their embrace of public well being measures varies broadly. What’s extra, consultants don’t know whether or not the low ranges of influenza within the Southern Hemisphere had been truly the results of fewer individuals in search of medical therapy due to pandemic-related restrictions or as a result of they had been afraid to go away their properties. That might translate into flu instances going undetected and unreported.
With so little seasonal transmission within the Southern Hemisphere, it’s tougher for epidemiologists and virologists to organize for flu within the Northern Hemisphere and predict the strains more likely to flow into.
“We actually don’t know what’s been occurring there,” mentioned Arnold Monto, professor of epidemiology on the College of Michigan. “Folks shouldn’t assume that as a result of we’re altering our habits [because of covid-19] that we’re going to see a lighter flu season.”
Monto is nervous the predominant flu pressure this season might be H3N2, essentially the most feared pressure. It’s related to extra problems, hospitalizations and deaths, particularly amongst kids, individuals 65 and older, and folks with sure power situations. That was the dominant pressure in 2017-2018, when hospitals had been overwhelmed and a document 188 kids died, in line with the CDC.
In the US, docs say it’s vital to take care of routine medical care throughout this fall and winter.
“If you happen to let your well being undergo, you’re extra in danger from covid-19,” Vanderbilt College infectious-disease professional Keipp Talbot mentioned. “If you happen to’re going to be uncovered to anybody in any respect, you must have a flu shot.”
Even with a document variety of flu vaccine doses, Talbot mentioned individuals shouldn’t delay getting their photographs. Social distancing and cleansing protocols at pharmacies imply it could take longer. “They’re not doing 50 individuals in two hours,” she mentioned. “Extra possible, they’re doing 50 individuals over three or 4 days.”
Having flu and covid-19 circulating on the identical time might complicate diagnoses and make therapy difficult. Flu could be addressed with antivirals, and the earlier you get therapy, the higher, Singer mentioned. Sufferers with influenza usually expertise essentially the most extreme signs throughout the first week of sickness, whereas sufferers with covid-19 could expertise signs over an extended time frame, with a peak throughout the second or third week of sickness, consultants mentioned.
Steroids equivalent to dexamethasone could assist covid-19 sufferers however hurt these sick with flu, Singer mentioned.
Some individuals with covid-19 would possibly mistakenly suppose they’ve flu and never take precautions to stop transmission of the coronavirus, which is deadlier and extra contagious. Most individuals with flu are contagious for a few day earlier than exhibiting signs.
Somebody with covid-19 could unfold the virus for about two days earlier than experiencing signs and stay contagious for at the least 10 days after signs seem. For somebody with no signs or signs that go away, it’s attainable to stay contagious for at the least 10 days after testing constructive for the virus.
It’s attainable for individuals to be contaminated with each viruses on the identical time, though consultants say odds of which might be small, and information on simultaneous an infection are scant. Some findings not but peer-reviewed counsel that getting a flu shot could also be linked to safety towards covid-19, in line with a current JAMA article.
Singer, who has been treating covid-19 sufferers in his hospital’s intensive care unit, isn’t optimistic in regards to the coming flu season.
“Proper now, the variety of sufferers hospitalized with covid-19 in our ICUs is much like what they’d be on the peak of flu season, in February and March,” he mentioned.
Take even a light flu season, add that to the coronavirus pandemic and “you actually start to start out stretching the capability on the well being middle degree,” he mentioned.